For centuries none hut not without Pechin one private home is not without conventional heating-cooking oven of the brick. Although today many of the houses are equipped with gas heating, most of the owners are in no hurry to abandon the brick oven, since it gives a special warmth - the warmth of the hearth, filling a house cosiness and a sense of tranquility. In addition, in regions rich forest can significantly save on natural gas consumption, owning a wood.
The desire to make alterations in the house, including the transfer of heating and cooking stoves, can often rest on the nuances and subtleties of the furnace case. To learn how to add up the oven with your hands, you will learn in this material.
A little about the kinds of ovens
Types of furnaces, there are many, but in private construction does not use all.
Types of furnaces for private homes:
- Heating (Fireplaces, bath heater);
- cooking (Exclusively for cooking oven);
- universal (Heating and cooking).
The latter is considered to be a kind of universal, so is most common in private construction.
Fireplace with wood burns in it the symbol of comfort and warmth
Apparatus furnace and its properties
Thumbnails View and projects of brick kilns, and choosing a specific embodiment, it should pay attention not so much on its exterior design, how the internal structure. The device heating and cooking oven determines its performance, and in the end - and life.
The internal construction of the cooking oven heating and not dependent upon the device's location in the building. Kitchen oven may be in the middle of the room, in a corner or against a wall.
The main structural elements of the cooking oven, boiler-:
- Trenches (hot-air channels);
- Ashpan (or ash pit);
- Grate (for firing posts with ash pan);
- Under (ramp to grate);
- Combustion chamber;
- Burnout (chimney);
- Body furnace (combustion zone separates from afterburning zone in the furnace);
- Otdushnik (opening through which the heat flows in the heated room);
- The outer wall;
- Dymooborot (channel connecting the furnace to the chimney);
- The indentation (space between the chimney and the furnace);
- Smoke valve;
- Heat-transfer wall.
DETAILED furnace device
Heat transfer cooker is determined by thermal energy produced by the oven in an hour, and depends on the quantity of fuel used. Heat capacity (the ability to store the heat from the combusted fuel) is measured in hours. Different furnaces have different specific heat level, which also depends on the degree of insulation of walls and ceilings, windows and doors of the house.
Location of the furnace in the house affects the quantity of heat. House with a stove, standing in the middle, it will be warmer.
Russian furnace and its device
Russian stove made of bricks placed on the foundation, since its structure is quite massive. In their design Russian furnace includes podpechek used to store fuels that it dries easily, and flares at the melting furnace. Podpechek-locked vault trough, which is filled with bedding on the solution of the clay. Bedding set top bottom of the cooking chamber.
Traditional Russian oven are widely used, and currently
Russian oven has a special design, which differs significantly from conventional heating-cooking oven heat transfer coefficient and other parameters. During protaplivaniya, even a brief, Russian stove stores heat and is able to give it at least 24 hours.
To Russian furnace is not consumed excessive amounts of fuel, not smoked and cooled in a few hours, when it is important to keep accurate device laying technology and dimensions, which includes circuit. The bricks forming the inner furnace device broach and polished to Hajla inside wall were flat and smooth.
Also in its structure Russian furnace includes a combustion chamber, which is its heart. The furnace is divided into a cooking chamber or firebox and bakery (crucible). The crucible has an inclined floor structure which should be performed accurately when the drawing device Russian furnace.
The Crucible is the main secret that hides a Russian kitchen. Some of the dishes after cooking have long languished in the cooking chamber. To achieve this effect, or to create similar conditions for preparing dishes of Russian cuisine, using familiar hob and electric oven is not possible.
The main secret, Russian distinguishes from conventional oven, a flue simplest design which, by its effectiveness surpasses flues device other furnaces.
Russian furnace device with your hands (video)
The choice of design
Selection depends on the type of furnace conditions of use:
- Heating and cooking stove. If you are planning intensive use of the furnace in his house, it is better to choose heating and cooking oven with a massive device and regular protaplivaniem. In an apparatus of such a furnace initially warms its construction consisting of a plurality of bricks cold, heat transfer then starts.
- Oven heating. For a cabin in the mountains or the garden, where the residence is not planned to be enough, and a fireplace. It even has small heat capacity and (2 - 3 hours), but is able to heat the room more quickly than massive furnace. This design allows you to quickly warm up during the cold season.
Brick oven heating can be installed with or without foundation. The most lightweight design is going in a quarter brick (brick placed on edge). In order to give it strength - using a frame made of metal parts. Massive stove requires installation of foundations, which should not be associated with the building support. In the case of a separate chimney also needs a foundation for it.
Choosing the right foundation for a brick oven
Determine the size and capacity
The level of heat heating-cooking oven must accurately perform possible thermal losses which depend on the temperature outside the house, and the degree of thermal insulation walls, windows, doors, and ceilings.
To calculate the demand power of the furnace, the amount of space you need to multiply the number of hours in a day.
Dimensions and design of future kiln determines its capacity.
furnace apparatus. Where to begin?
An example of the construction plan of the furnace through the rows of bricks
Masonry any furnace can not be initiated without draft or drawing, which must include the location and dimensions of the structure, as well as withdrawal chimney without disturbing the bearing structure elements. It is also necessary to calculate the heat transfer coefficient of the oven. Scheme or project the future of the furnace is made on the basis of this calculation.
Create their own project or drawings, boiler-heating furnace is difficult, so you can use the services of the project organization or the information on the Internet.
Tools and materials
When the furnace project is approved, it is possible to prepare for its masonry.
To fold the oven with your hands, you need to have on hand:
- Hammer stove-maker (trowel);
- Master OK;
- Building level and a plumb;
- Measuring tape;
- The cement-sand mortar;
- Hand power tool (hammer, grinder, etc.);
- Red brick;
- Refractory brick (burned);
- Facing brick;
- A solution of masonry sand and clay;
- Thermal insulation and waterproof materials;
- Furnace accessories and devices.
Masonry oven with his own hands. All stages
Like any building process, furnace masonry with their hands made in stages.
Driving this process includes the following items:
- Construction of the foundation. The foundation can be laid not from a brick and fight. Use foundation is not for all furnace designs, but if you build a massive Russian stove or without his device can not do.
The support of the future of the furnace in any case should not touch the foundation of the building, as they have different draft and in the case of misalignment, can crack the oven and broken her work, and this is a fire hazard.
On top of the basement kitchen stove made cement
The extent of foundation depth depends on the weight of the furnace structure and its design and footprint should exceed the overall dimensions of the furnace by at least 5 cm around the perimeter. Fundam aligned masonry brick of baked in two rows on the cement to floor level. Forming a first row of masonry is necessary to achieve a flat surface in accordance with the level, since it will depend on the quality of the entire structure of the furnace. This is followed by a waterproofing layer as a material which can be used for ordinary roofing felt or roofing material, the material is placed in two layers.
- Masonry furnace. On top of the waterproofing is laid first row. Masonry with each row should begin solution without leaving gaps between the bricks equal future seams (3 - 5 mm). Further, in place of angular brick laid and leveled solution trowel. Brick itself is immersed in water and held there until all the air comes out. "Flush" brick removed from the water and laid on the correct solution with a tapping on it with a trowel for alignment. Excess solution was removed trowel.
The first row of bricks laid without mortar for the correct calculation of the amount ofOn top of the first row of bricks laid waterproofing material
Using a trowel is necessary for the correct alignment of bricksEach row of bricks laid with overlapping joints of the previous row
To test how well laid the corner brick, it should check the spirit level horizontally and plumb on both sides of the vertical.
Laying bricks later produced in an identical manner, the only difference is that the vertical joints in masonry are filled with a solution. Each subsequent row should be laid offset in half brick bandaging of seams. During the laying of installing fitting (door ash and combustion chamber grate plate). Openings for fittings and furnace equipment necessary to do a little more of the elements themselves in view of the difference of the linear expansion of metal elements and bricks.
- Formation of the chimney. Tube laying process is not much different from the masonry furnace itself. When passing attic floor observe fire distance (38 cm) from the truss system and other timber elements to the inner wall of the pipe. If there is no desire to spread the outer part of the brick chimney, which rises above the roof, it is possible to install a pipe of asbestos or metal.
The heating furnace of bricks with their hands (video)
Formation of useful skills in the area of the furnace case - not an easy task, as well as masonry ovens, with their own hands. By the process of brick furnace device it is important to have the correct approach respecting dimensional accuracy of the device and the draft ratio of the finished product.
Examples of brick kilns (photo)